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For synonyms click here. Vegetative mycelium abundant, entirely submerged or more or less effused, irregularly branching, septate, hyaline or brightly coloured and forming a dense and compact mycelia colony with well-defined margins.

Conidiophores borne from undifferentiated subsurface, superficial or aerial hyphae, rarely subapically proliferation under terminal penicillus. Conidial apparatus usually a well-defined structure brush or broomnamed the penicillus; penicilli comprised of phialides born directly on the stipe, or with one, two or rarely more verticils of metulae and rami as supporting cells.

Conidiogenous cells phialides, borne in succession, i. Chlamydospores absent. Sclerotia occasionally produced, composed of thick-walled cells, usually hard. Cleistothecia, if produced, usually hard, globose to subglobose, pseudoparenchymatous or sclerochymatous, ripening from the centre outward and often tardily; white, pale, yellow, orange or brown coloured, occasionally black or red.

Aspergillus paradoxusA. Several species described as Penicillium belongs to other genera and not to Penicillium see also Visagie et al. In our concept, only teleomorphs producing pseudoparenchymatous and sclerotioid ascomata are included eupenicillium-typeand Talaromyces species, with soft ascomata without a well-defined, persistent wall, are excluded Samson et al.

Also the Penicillium species, which have lanceolate phialides and metulae with equal lengths as the phialides, are excluded. These species are also phylogenetically distinct and accommodated in Talaromyces.

The following list includes species names that are accepted in the genus Penicillium. Even though the updating of the accepted species list began for nomenclatural purposes, we aim to make this list more functional by including additional information linked to the species names. The list thus includes MycoBank numbers where complete nomenclatural data can be obtained, collection numbers of ex-type strains for future taxonomists requiring authenticated reference material, the species current sectional classification, and GenBank accession numbers for ITS barcodes and, where available, alternative molecular identification markers for BenA, CaM and RPB2.

Despite the considerable amount of time and effort spent on completing this list, there is the possibility of errors or oversights. As such we solicit and gratefully accept any comments on missing names, errors or new data that has become available, especially when publishing a new species. We would also appreciate suggestions for making the list more useful.

When using information provided in this list, please cite Visagie et al. Aspergillus and Penicillium. Penicillium Link : Fries, Systema Mycologicum 3: For synonyms click here Vegetative mycelium abundant, entirely submerged or more or less effused, irregularly branching, septate, hyaline or brightly coloured and forming a dense and compact mycelia colony with well-defined margins.Click to see full answer In this regard, is Aspergillus Penicillium mold dangerous?

Penicillium: Description, Structure and Reproduction

The majority of the hundreds of sub-species are allergenic; only a few are toxic. This group of species only grows with the humidity in the air as its water source. Also Know, what does aspergillus penicillium mold look like? Spores of Aspergillus and Penicillium are rounded or slightly elongated, and smooth or ornamented depending on the species. Unfortunately, there are many other genera and species which produce spores that are very similar and difficult to differentiate from Aspergillus and Penicillium.

For example, if any of the following conditions are met, the mold spore levels are considered elevated: 1. The total spore counts level of all species exceeds 1, spores per cubic meter or 2.

Any indicator speciessuch as Stachybotrys or Chaetomium is greater than spores per cubic meter. Conversely, a count of Aspergillus sp. Spores from this particular mold produce mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans if inhaled, eaten, or touched. Cladosporium is a very common mold and is one that falls into the most dangerous mold category. This genus comes in green, brown, gray, or black colors and is comprised of around 40 species.

Rake around the perimeter of your home and remove as much decaying organic material as you can. Mix a weak bleach solution and wipe down every single surface in your home with the weak bleach.


Remove all sources of water or dampness in your home, to remove possible breeding grounds for molds such as aspergillus. Signs and symptoms depend on which organs are affected, but in general, invasive aspergillosis can cause: Fever and chills. A cough that brings up blood hemoptysis Shortness of breath. Chest or joint pain. Headaches or eye symptoms.

Skin lesions. Oral itraconazole usually mg daily helps symptoms in many patients but rarely kills the fungus in the cavity.In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Description of Penicillium 2. Vegetative Structure of Penicillium 3. According to Raper and Thomthe genus includes 1 36 species, distributed throughout the world. They are present in soil, in air, on decaying fruits, vegetables, meat, etc.

Later Raper and Alexander selected a strain of P. The importance of Penicillium is mentioned in the Table 4. The vegetative body is mycelial Fig. The mycelium is profusely branched with septate hyphae, composed of thin-walled cells containing one to many nuclei Fig.

Some mycelia grow deeper into the substratum to absorb food material and others remain on the substrate and grow a mycelial felt. The reserve food is present in the form of oil globules. It takes place by accidental breaking of vegetative mycelium into two or more fragments.


Each fragment then grows individually like the mother mycelium. The conidiophore develops as an erect branch from any cell of the vegetative mycelium. The conidiophore may be unbranched P. The branch of the conidiophore Fig. A number of flask-shaped phialid or sterigmata develops at the tip of each metulae. Each sterigmata develops at its tip a number of conidia arranged basipetally younger one near the mother and older one away from it. In species P. Rarely P. During the development of conidium, the tip of the sterigma swells up and its nucleus divides mitotically into two nuclei, of which one migrates into the swollen tip and by partition wall the swollen region cuts off from the mother and forms the uninucleate conidium.

The tip of the sterigma swells up again and following the same procedure second conidium is formed, which pushes the first one towards the outer side. This process repeats several times and thus a chain of conidia is formed. The conidia Fig. After maturation, the conidia get detached from the mother and are dispersed by wind. On suitable substratum, they germinate Fig. The nucleus undergoes repeated mitotic division and all nuclei enter into the germ tube. The septa formation continues with the elongation of germ tube and finally a new septate branched mycelium develops.

Sexual reproduction has been studied only in few species Fig. It shows great variation from isogamy P. Most of the species are homothallic, except a few like P.

Ascocarps are rarely formed.Floccaria Grev. Some members of the genus produce penicillina molecule that is used as an antibioticwhich kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria. Other species are used in cheesemaking. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi 10th edition,the widespread genus contains over species. The genus was first described in the scientific literature by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in his work Observationes in ordines plantarum naturales ; he wrote, "Penicillium.

Thallus e floccis caespitosis septatis simplicibus aut ramosis fertilibus erectis apice penicillatis", where penicillatis referred to "pencil-like" referring to a Camel's hair pencil brush. The common apple rot fungus P. In his monographJohn I. Pitt divided Penicillium into four subgenera based on conidiophore morphology and branching pattern: AspergilloidesBiverticilliumFurcatumand Penicillium.

The genus name is derived from the Latin root penicillummeaning "painter's brush", and refers to the chains of conidia that resemble a broom. The thallus mycelium consists of highly branched networks of multinucleatedusually colourless hyphaewith each pair of cells separated by a septum. Conidiophores are at the end of each branch accompanied by green spherical constricted units called conidia. These propagules play a significant role in reproduction; conidia are the main dispersal strategy of these fungi.

Sexual reproduction involves the production of ascosporescommencing with the fusion of an archegonium and an antheridiumwith sharing of nuclei.

The irregularly distributed asci contain eight unicellular ascospores each. Species of Penicillium are ubiquitous soil fungi preferring cool and moderate climates, commonly present wherever organic material is available.

Saprophytic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus are among the best-known representatives of the Eurotiales and live mainly on organic biodegradable substances. Commonly known in America as moldsthey are among the main causes of food spoilageespecially species of subgenus Penicillium.

The ability of these Penicillium species to grow on seeds and other stored foods depends on their propensity to thrive in low humidity and to colonize rapidly by aerial dispersion while the seeds are sufficiently moist. Some Penicillium species affect the fruits and bulbs of plants, including P.

Penicillium species are present in the air and dust of indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings. The fungus can be readily transported from the outdoors, and grow indoors using building material or accumulated soil to obtain nutrients for growth. Penicillium growth can still occur indoors even if the relative humidity is low, as long as there is sufficient moisture available on a given surface.

A British study determined that Aspergillus - and Penicillium -type spores were the most prevalent in the indoor air of residential properties, and exceeded outdoor levels. Some Penicillium species cause damage to machinery and the combustible materials and lubricants used to run and maintain them. For example, P. Several species of the genus Penicillium play a central role in the production of cheese and of various meat products. To be specific, Penicillium molds are found in Blue cheese.

Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti are the molds on CamembertBrieRoquefortand many other cheeses. In addition to their importance in the food industry, species of Penicillium and Aspergillus serve in the production of a number of biotechnologically produced enzymes and other macromolecules, such as gluconiccitricand tartaric acidsas well as several pectinaseslipaseamylasescellulasesand proteases.

Some Penicillium species have shown potential for use in bioremediationmore specifically mycoremediationbecause of their ability to break down a variety of xenobiotic compounds. The genus includes a wide variety of species molds that are the source molds of major antibiotics.Blue cheeses use mold — Penicillium roqueforti — to get their distinctive veins. And a fun cheese history lesson that connects the Manhattan Project to cheese!


Underneath the umbrella of fungi are yeasts and molds. Penicillium roqueforti isolated from a Wisconsin blue cheese. Each of these filaments are known as hyphae singular: hypha. If there happen to be an mycologists currently reading this, I sincerely apologize for my gross oversimplification.

Blue mold grows in structures known as hyphae. Top Types of P. I, along with most cheese technologists, usually say something along the lines of Penicillium roqueforti is used for Roquefort and Penicillium glaucum is used for Gorgonzola. This is a bit of a half-truth. Names like P. Actually, they are all sub-species of P. This species of mold is enormously diverse and is found not only in many distinct blue cheeses, but across the food world and the natural world.

And it can look quite diverse too! Check out the research paper here. Penicillium roqueforti has quite an active metabolism. It breaks down protein and fat very effectively. This yields the textures, aromas, and flavors that we all know and love or revile in some cases. Triglycerides are made of fatty acids. Mold metabolism can free these fatty acids and break them down even further into a menagerie of flavor compounds.

Mold helps with lipolysis — the breakdown of fat — which ultimately results in ketones. Just like we need to breath to have a healthy metabolism, so does P. So remember, never vacuum pack blue cheese!

Untitled film showing penicillin production (nd)

Drag the slider to see the difference between healthy blue mold and oxygen-starved blue mold! Made using twentytwenty. Muller, who worked as an advisor on the Manhattan Project, exposed fruit flies to X-ray radiation and studied the resulting mutations.

Bacteriology Professor Stanley Knight, of the University of Wisconsin, was inspired by this work and decided to expose Penicillium roqueforti to UV lights to see what mutations might occur.With only one exception Penicillium marneffeiwhich is thermally dimorphicthe members of the genus Penicillium are filamentous fungi. Penicillium spp. Showing again how it is distinct from other species in this genus, Penicillium marneffei is endemic specifically in Southeast Asia where it infects bamboo rats which serve as epidemiological markers and reservoirs for human infections.

Penicillium marneffei is pathogenic particularly in patients with AIDS and its isolation from blood is considered as an HIV marker in endemic areas.

Penicillium Species

In addition to their infectious potential, Penicillium spp. Some Penicillium spp. The genus Penicillium has several species. The most common ones include Penicillium chrysogenumPenicillium citrinumPenicillium janthinellumPenicillium marneffeiand Penicillium purpurogenum. Identification to species level is based on macroscopic morphology and microscopic features [ ].

See the summary of species and synonyms for the Penicillium spp. Penicillium has been isolated from patients with keratitis [ ], endophtalmitis, otomycosis, necrotizing esophagitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis, and urinary tract infections.

Most Penicillium infections are encountered in immunosuppressed hosts. Corneal infections are usually post-traumatic [ ]. In addition to its infectious potential, Penicillium verrucosum produces a mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic.

The production of the toxin usually occurs in cereal grains at cold climates [ ]. Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus and specifically infects patients with AIDS who live at or visit Southeast Asia Thailand and adjacent countries, Taiwan, and India where the fungus is endemic [, ]. Penicillium marneffei infections have also been reported in non-AIDS patients with hematological malignancies and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy [ ].

Penicillium marneffei infection, so called penicilliosis marneffei, is acquired via inhalation and results in initial pulmonary infection, followed by fungemia and dissemination of the infection [,]. The lymphatic system, liver, spleen and bones are usually involved. Acne-like skin papules on face, trunk, and extremities are observed during the course of the disease.

Penicilliosis marneffei infection is often fatal. The colonies of Penicillium other than Penicillium marneffei are rapid growing, flat, filamentous, and velvety, woolly, or cottony in texture. The colonies are initially white and become blue green, gray green, olive gray, yellow or pinkish in time. The plate reverse is usually pale to yellowish [,]. These colonies are bluish-gray-green at center and white at the periphery. The red, rapidly diffusing, soluble pigment observed from the reverse is very typical.

For species other than Penicillium marneffeiseptate hyaline hyphae 1.


Metulae are secondary branches that form on conidiophores. The metulae carry the flask-shaped phialides. The organization of the phialides at the tips of the conidiophores is very typical. The conidia 2.With over accepted species, the Penicillium genus includes some of the most common fungi in the world.

Indoors, it usually grows on wallpaper, wallpaper glue, carpet, paint, fabrics, house dust and water-damaged buildings in general. Penicillium colonies range in colour from blue-green to white, yellow and pink with a velvety or powdery texture. They grow rapidly and release a strong musty odour.

Penicillium is a common allergen, triggering allergies such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and hay fever. It can also trigger or worsen asthma symtpoms.

Some Penicillium species are capable of producing microbial volatile organic compounds MVOCs and toxins that can be harmful to human health, especially upon long-term exposure. Penicillium was discovered in by Dr. Alexander Fleming, who was a bacteriologist at St. Fleming found that a mold known as Penicillium notatum had prevented the normal growth of Staphylococcus in his petri dishes.

In addition, he discovered that there was some factor present in Penicillium mold that, apart from inhibiting bacterial growth, might also be used to combat infectious diseases.

In March14 years after the discovery of PenicilliumAnne Miller became the first patient to be successfully treated with Penicilliu m after she miscarried and developed an infection that led to blood poisoning and almost took her life at New Haven Hospital, Connecticut.

At that time, no specified medications for bacterial infections existed, and many people developed blood poisoning. In addition to being the first person to suggest that Penicillium mold is capable of secreting an antibacterial substance, Dr. Fleming was also the first person to develop a concentrate of the active substance, penicillin, in A lot of research was conducted over the next twelve years, during which he grew and distributed the original mold.

However, Dr. Penicillin was introduced as an antibiotic in the s, and since then, it has been recognized as one of the greatest advances in therapeutic medicine.

The United States also played a significant role in the large-scale production of Penicillium during World War II, thereby making the life-saving substance that was once in limited supply widely available. There are over accepted species of Penicillium. They are commonly referred to as either the blue or green molds due to the fact that they produce many quantities of bluish, greenish or yellowish spores that give them their aforementioned characteristic colours.

The most common species of Penicillium include P. The identification of these species is based on their microscopic features and macroscopic morphology. Penicillium refers to a group of molds that share the same characteristics and can be found all over the world. It was Penicillium mold that was responsible for saving many lives by producing the first known modern antibiotic known as penicillin.

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