Filum terminale definition and function

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The filum terminale, or terminal filament, is a slender flexible strand that attaches the bottom of the spinal cord to a bone called the coccyx at the lower end of the vertebral column. Nerve tissue makes up the spinal cord, and this transmits nerve impulses allowing communication between brain and body. The cord is wrapped inside three membranes, known as meningesand the innermost one, the pia materis full of blood vessels and is continuous with the covering of the brain.

It is an extension of the pia mater that forms the filum terminale. The spinal cord tapers at its lower end into the conus medullaris and from the pointed end a strand of the pia mater protrudes, becoming the filum terminale, which runs down to attach to the coccyx. Normally, the spinal cord is suspended freely, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid and protected within the bony column formed by the vertebrae. The filum terminale serves to attach the cord to the end of the bony spinewhile still allowing some movement due to its elastic nature.

Sometimes the spine fails to develop properly in the embryo, leading to an abnormal terminal filament, which is shorter than usual and fibrous rather than flexible. This condition is known as tight filum terminale syndrome. In tight filum terminale syndrome, the spinal cord is tightly tethered. When a person moves the spine to stretch and bend, as happens regularly during daily activities, the abnormal filum terminale cannot flex to accommodate this and the spinal cord, together with its nerves, ends up stretching instead.

Over time this causes damage to the nerves, especially those arising from the lower part of the spinal cord, and symptoms arise affecting the parts of the body they supply. Pain in the lower back can occur, and a curved spine may be seen, together with deformed feet and weak legs. There can be problems with walking — the legs and feet might feel numb — with one limb growing more than the other, and bladder and bowel control may deteriorate over time.

Treatment of the syndrome involves a surgical operation to sever the filum terminale completely, leaving the spinal cord detached and freely suspended. The outcome of the procedure depends on how far nerve damage has already progressed, but generally the symptoms are prevented from becoming any worse, and often they improve.

Bladder symptoms are least likely to show an improvement, but often any pain in the back and legs disappears after treatment. Colledge Last Modified Date: January 21, Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?Related to filum terminale: cauda equina. All rights reserved. Synonym s : filum terminale [TA], nervus imparterminal thread. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? MRI of paraganglioma of the filum terminale.

J Comput Assist Tomogr ;20 1 Spinal paraganglioma: a case report. Final diagnosis of intradural fibrolipoma located at the conus with tight filum terminale and cord tethering was made. Fibrolipomas of the filum terminale are usually more caudally located and generally much smaller.

Musculoskeletal diagnosis. In Garceau hypothesized that spinal cord traction was caused by a tight filum terminale. Abnormal fusion of these germ layers can result in nonfusion of the embryonic halves of the vertebral arches or spina bifida.

Neoplasms of the spinal cord and filum terminale : Radiologic-pathologic correlation. Acute quadriplegia in a patient with bacterial pericarditis. Closed spinal dysraphisms such as diastomatomyelia, dermal sinus, terminal myelocystocoele, lipomas, thickened filum terminaletethered cord and sacral spina bifida have been described in the literature. Spinal segmental dysgenesis. These tumors typically arise from the ependymal glia of the conus medullaris and filum terminale.

On the basis of their location, they present with lower back, leg, or sacral pain, and muscle weakness or sphincter dysfunction. Focal spinal cord lesions in children: a practical approach to differential diagnosis.

Medical browser? Full browser?The filum terminale is continuous with the pia mater and is described as having two sections:. Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Updating… Please wait.

Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again. Thank you for updating your details. Log In. Sign Up. Become a Gold Supporter and see no ads. Log in Sign up. Articles Cases Courses Quiz. About Blog Go ad-free. On this page:. Gray's Anatomy. Churchill Livingstone. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 2. Last's anatomy. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 3. Thickened fatty filum terminale: MR imaging. Pubmed citation 4. Fatty filum terminale: assessment with MR imaging.

J Comput Assist Tomogr. Pubmed citation. Edit article Share article View revision history Report problem with Article. URL of Article.

What is the Filum Terminale?

Article information. System: Spine. Section: Anatomy. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings: Filum terminale internum Filum terminale externum. Figure 1: cauda equina Gray's illustration Figure 1: cauda equina Gray's illustration.

Figure 2: spinal cord Gray's illustration Figure 2: spinal cord Gray's illustration. Case 1: fatty filum terminale Case 1: fatty filum terminale. Loading more images Close Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Loading Stack - 0 images remaining. By System:.The lower back houses the terminal end of the spinal cord and mostly encloses the cauda equina—nerve roots that descend from the spinal cord.

The spinal cord and the cauda equina are delicate and important structures. The spinal canal formed by the lumbar vertebrae protects these structures by providing a strong, bony casing. Watch Now.

The spinal cord terminates in the lumbar spine.

filum terminale definition and function

The exact point of termination varies among individuals; most commonly, it terminates at the level of the L1 or L2 vertebrae. A few anatomical structures related to the lumbar spinal cord are highlighted below. The terminal portion of the spinal cord in the lumbar region is cone-shaped and is called the conus medullaris.

The conus medullaris is made up of several neurons nerve cells and has 3 protective layers. Starting from the outermost layer, these are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

The pia mater tapers and continues down as the filum terminale at the end of the conus medullaris. The pia mater forms a delicate, fibrous strand of tissue called the filum terminale that extends down from the conus medullaris.

This strand stabilizes the spinal cord by connecting the conus medullaris to the coccyx end of the spine. The dura mater and arachnoid mater are collectively called the dural sac or the thecal sac. This sac covers the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and each individual spinal nerve root as it courses out of the cauda equina and travels into the intervertebral foramen bony opening through which the nerve exits the spinal canal.

The space inside the arachnoid mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid CSF. Below the conus medullaris, this space is enlarged. This enlargement is called the lumbar cistern and contains CSF, the filum terminale, and the cauda equina. A group of nerve roots that travel down from the spinal cord and the conus medullaris is called the cauda equina. The cauda equina contains nerve roots from L2 in the lumbar spine to Co1 in the coccygeal tail bone end spine.

The terminal tissues of the spinal cord in the lower back can get compressed, irritated, or abnormally stretched and typically cause serious medical problems.

Possible conditions affecting this region along with the specific symptoms, signs, and causes are described below. The cauda equina is formed by the continuation of nerve fibers beyond the spinal cord. Compression of the cauda equina, such as by a herniated disc, may cause severe pain and numbness in both legs. Read more about Cauda Equina Syndrome. Compression of the conus medullaris in the lumbar region at L1-L2 typically between T12 to L2 causes conus medullaris syndrome.

This syndrome is characterized by the following signs and symptoms 1 :. The most common causes of conus medullaris syndrome include spinal fracture, disc herniation, tumors, trauma, and collection of pus in the epidural space due to infection epidural abscess. Conus medullaris syndrome is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment to preserve leg function.Accessed 16 Feb.

Comments on filum terminale What made you want to look up filum terminale? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Oh, it's only the best day of the year. We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'?

We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Winter has returned along with cold weather. Test your vocabulary with our question quiz! Login or Register. Save Word. Learn More about filum terminale. Share filum terminale Post the Definition of filum terminale to Facebook Share the Definition of filum terminale on Twitter.

Dictionary Entries near filum terminale filtrate filtration filum filum terminale fimbria fimbriata fimbriated See More Nearby Entries. Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Spell words. Make bears. Love words? Need even more definitions? The awkward case of 'his or her'. Take the quiz Play the game.It is one of the modifications of pia mater. It gives longitudinal support to the spinal cord and consists of two parts:.

The most inferior of the spinal nerves, the coccygeal nerve leaves the spinal cord at the level of the conus medullaris via respective vertebrae through their intervertebral foramina, superior to the filum terminale.

However, adhering to the outer surface of the filum terminale are a few strands of nerve fibres which probably represent rudimentary second and third coccygeal nerves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fibrous tissue supporting the spinal cord. Cauda equina and filum terminale seen from behind. The dura mater has been opened and spread out, and the arachnoid has been removed. Filum terminale labeled at center right. Sagittal section of vertebral canal to show the lower end of the medulla spinalis and the filum terminale.

Li, Lv. First and fifth lumbar vertebra. SII Second sacral vertebra. Dura mater. Lower part of subarachnoid cavity. Lower extremity of medulla spinalis. Filum terminale internum.

filum terminale definition and function

Filum terminale externum. Attachment of filum terminale to first segment of coccyx. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots. Deep dissection.Did it make you grumpy. I was more prepared this time round though, and have, for the most part, managed to taper off my sweet tooth. Sugar-free to me means a diet free of refined sugar - things like processed foods and white flours, rice and bread.

Has quitting sugar changed the way you think about food. I used to get stuck making the same 10 meals. Also, spelt or barley make delicious alternatives to risotto rice. What health benefits did you notice after giving up sugar. It definitely had an impact on my energy levels and my skin looks loads better. It took a while to get to that point but was worth the wait. What were the hardest times when you gave up sugar. How did you beat the cravings. Just something to give me a sweet hit. Do you think success is all in the preparation.

Do you avoid any fruits or natural sugars. However, fruit is a great snack to have.

Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina of the Lumbar Spine

What alternatives do you use in baking. What would be your ultimate tip for anyone thinking of going sugar-free. The most important thing is not to beat yourself up if you slip - just pick it up again the next day. Be realistic, make sure you have something sweet but free of refined sugars in the fridge in case you get a craving.

Whether you're looking for sweet substitutes, sugar-free baking guides or simply want to find out your recommended daily amounts find all the answers in our sugar hub:All you need to know about sugarStill struggling to get your head round sugar. Let us know your questions below and we'll do our best to help. Comments (11) Questions (2) Tips (0) I am one year today into a lifestyle change, gave up a HUGE addiction to sugar that had me stuffing my face with chocolate every night.

I say this because I am very disappointed at how this article handles the topic, with no science around the process of giving it up, no clarity around what makes sugar unhealthy, and spreads myths about what is "sugar".

Being "natural" means nothing. Poison Ivy is natural, doesn't mean you should eat it (I know I know hyperbole, but the point is that "natural" is just a marketing term).

I am very passionate about this topic, as I have found the benefits of ending my sugar addiction to be extremely positive for my physical and mental health. I thought sugar was making my anxiety worse, and since giving it up I've noticed a huge positive change. I think more clearly, I'm less re-active when I feel upset, and I can focus for much longer periods of time, which really helps me at work.

I'm just writing this to help point people in the right direction. If you're interested in learning what differentiates "bad" and "good" sugar, I recommend the documentary The Sugar Film, which I've linked to below. I just hate to see people given poor health advice, when good choices from good advice can make such a huge difference in your life, help you handle everyday stresses and even large crises, by giving you confidence, strength, energy and overall health.

I've been a diabetic for almost 10 years now.

filum terminale

The best advice i got was to cut back on starchy foods. White bread to sugar free wheat bread.

filum terminale definition and function

I can usually hit my target sugars round 150 mgdl by lunch and less than 180 mgdl by dinner. My wife wont let me have any fruit now in whatever form.

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